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Prostate Cancer: References

1. Giovannucci EL, Liu Y, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of physical activity and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1005–1010.

2. Patel AV, Rodriguez C, Jacobs EJ, Solomon L, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Recreational physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in a large cohort of US men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:275–279.

3. Koo LC, Mang OW, Ho JH. An ecological study of trends in cancer incidence and dietary changes in Hong Kong. Nutr Cancer. 1997;28:289–301.†

4. Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Kaneko T, Hoshi K, Sato A. Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta–analysis of case–control studies. Nutr Cancer. 2004;48:22–27.

5. Walker M, Aronson KJ, King W, et al. Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Ontario, Canada. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:592–598.

6. Chen YC, Chiang CI, Lin RS, Pu YS, Lai MK, Sung FC. Diet, vegetarian food and prostate carcinoma among men in Taiwan. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:1057–1061.

7. Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol. 2005;174:1065–1069.

8. Saxe GA, Hebert JR, Carmody JF, et al. Can diet in conjunction with stress reduction affect the rate of increase in prostate specific antigen after biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer? J Urol. 2001;166:2202–2207.

9. Dorgan JF, Judd JT, Longcope C, et al. Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:850–855.

10. Hamalainen E, Adlercreutz H, Puska P, Pietinen P. Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem. 1984;20:459–464.

11. Ross RK, Henderson BE. Do diet and androgens alter prostate cancer risk via a common etiologic pathway? J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994:86:252–254.

12. Willett WC. Specific fatty acids and risks of breast and prostate cancer: dietary intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(suppl 6):S1557–S1563.

13. Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:557–567.

14. Gunnell D, Oliver SE, Peters TJ, et al. Are diet–prostate cancer associations mediated by the IGF axis? A cross–sectional analysis of diet, IGF–I and IGFBP–3 in healthy middle–aged men. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:1682–1686.

15. Cross AJ, Peters U, Kirsh VA, et al. A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11779–11884.

16. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58:442–447.

17. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci E. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physiciansí Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:549–554.

18. Heaney RP, McCarron DA, Dawson–Hughes B, et al. Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. J Am Dietetic Assoc. 1999;99:1228–1233.

19. Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Ziegler RG. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow–up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:1147–1154.

20. Berndt SI, Carter HB, Landis PK, et al. Calcium intake and prostate cancer risk in a long–term aging study: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Urology. 2002;60:1118–1123.

21. Tseng M, Breslow RA, DeVellis RF, Ziegler RG. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow–up Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:71–77.

22. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:391–398.

23. Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res. 1999;59:1225–1230.

24. Wertz K, Siler U, Goralczyk R. Lycopene: modes of action to promote prostate health. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;430:127–134.

25. Mohanty NK, Saxena S, Singh UP, Goyal NK, Arora RP. Lycopene as a chemopreventive agent in the treatment of high–grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. Urol Oncol. 2005;23:383–385.

26. Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Djuric Z, et al. Effects of lycopene supplementation in patients with localized prostate cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002;227:881–885.

27. Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Sakr W, et al. Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:861–868.

28. Boileau TW, Liao Z, Kim S, Lemeshow S, Erdman JW Jr, Clinton SK. Prostate carcinogenesis in N–methyl–N–nitrosourea (NMU)–testosterone–treated rats fed tomato powder, lycopene, or energy–restricted diets. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:1578–1586.

29. Kim HS, Bowen P, Chen L, et al. Effects of tomato sauce consumption on apoptotic cell death in prostate benign hyperplasia and carcinoma. Nutr Cancer. 2003;47:40–47.

30. Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:61–68.

31. Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Whittemore AS, et al. Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case–control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9:795–804.

32. Sarkar FH, Li Y. Indole–3–carbinol and prostate cancer. J Nutr. 2004;134(suppl 12):S3493–S3498.

33. Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:1219–1224.

34. Duffield–Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int. 2003;91:608–612.

35. Kane CJ, Bassett WW, Sadetsky N, et al. Obesity and prostate cancer clinical risk factors at presentation: data from CaPSURE. J Urol. 2005;173:732–736.

36. Laukkanen JA, Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, Pukkala E, Hakkarainen A, Salonen JT. Metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer in Finnish men: a population–based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:1646–1650.

37. Platz EA, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Alcohol intake, drinking patterns, and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:444–453.

38. Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Lee IM. Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer: The Harvard Alumni Health Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:749–755.

39. Putnam SD, Cerhan JR, Parker AS, et al. Lifestyle and anthropometric risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Iowa men. Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10:361–369.

40. Fradet Y, Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R, Moore L. Dietary fat and prostate cancer progression and survival. Eur Urol. 1999;35:388–391.

41. Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R, Fradet Y, Moore L. Dietary fat and prostate cancer survival. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:245–251.

42. Kim DJ, Gallagher RP, Hislop TG et al. Premorbid diet in relation to survival from prostate cancer (Canada). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:65–77.

43. Carter JP, Saxe GP, Newbold V, Peres CE, Campeau RJ, Bernal–Green L. Hypothesis: dietary management may improve survival from nutritionally linked cancers based on analysis of representative cases. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:209–226.

44. Amling CL, Riffenburgh RH, Sun L, et al. Pathologic variables and recurrence rates as related to obesity and race in men with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:439–445.

45. Freedland SJ, Grubb KA, Yiu SK, et al. Obesity and risk of biochemical progression following radical prostatectomy at a tertiary care referral center. J Urol. 2005;174:919–922.

46. Moyad MA. Dietary fat reduction to reduce prostate cancer risk: controlled enthusiasm, learning a lesson from breast or other cancers, and the big picture. Urology. 2002;59(suppl 1):51–62.


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